National Disaster Management Authority Government of India

Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh - Official website -

Hazard Profile - Earthquake, Landslide, Flash Flood

Control Room - 0177-2622204, 0177-2621154


Sh. Virbhadra Singh


List of DCs and SPs Himachal Pradesh-


Sr. No

Name & District

Office/Fax No

Residence No

Mobile No


D.C Bilaspur

Fax -223065



D.C Chamba

Fax -225371



D.C Hamirpur

Fax -222437



D.C Kangra

Fax 223323



D.C Kinnaur

Fax 223342



D.C Kullu

Fax 225396



D.C Lahul&Spiti

Fax 222502



D.C Mandi

Fax 225213



D.C Shimla

Fax 2653535



D.C Shirmaur

Fax 223175



D.C Solan

Fax 220086



D.C Una

Fax 223781


Mobile numbers are likely to be changed.


Details of SSP/SP's of District Himachal Pradesh


Name of District


Telephone No.
Police Office

Telephone No.

































Lahul & Spiti






























View Himachal Pradesh in a larger map

Himachal Pradesh is situated in the Western Himalayas latitude 30o 22' 40" N to 33o 12' 40" N and longitude 75o 45' 55" E to 79o 04' 20" E covering an area of 55,673 kilometres Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous state with elevation ranging from about 350 metres (1,148 ft) to 6,000 metres (19,685 ft) above the sea level. The drainage system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glaciers. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. In fact the rivers are older than the mountain system. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.

There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation. The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical in the southern tracts to cold, alpine and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges with more elevation. The state has areas like Dharamsala that receive very heavy rainfall, as well as those like Lahaul and Spiti that are cold and almost rainless. Broadly Himachal experience three seasons; hot weather season, cold weather season and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in alpine zone which experience mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from 28 °C (82 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). Winter lasts from late November till mid March. Snowfall is common in alpine tracts (generally above 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) i.e. in the Higher and Trans-Himalayan region).

Agriculture contributes over 45% to the net state domestic product. It is the main source of income and employment in Himachal. Over 93% of the population in Himachal depend directly upon agriculture which provides direct employment to 71% of its people. The main cereals grown are wheat, maize, rice and barley. Himachal is extremely rich in hydro electric resources. The state has about 25% of the national potential in this respect. It has been estimated that about 20,300MW of hydro electric power can be generated in the State by constructing various major, medium, small and mini/micro hydel projects on the five river basins. The state is also the first state in India to achieve the goal of having a bank account for every family. As per the current prices, the total GDP was estimated at 25,435 crore (254,350,000,000), as against 23,024 crore ( 230,240,000,000) in the year 2004–05, showing an increase of 10.5%. The gross domestic product of the State at current prices is `254,350 million (year 2007). Per Capita Income in 2000-01 was `10942.

The population of Himachal in 2001 stood at 6,077,900 as per the provisional results of the Census of India 2001. Of which the urban population is 594881 persons and rural population is 5482367 persons. The population of Himachal Pradesh includes estimated population of entire Kinnaur district, where the population enumeration of Census of India, 2001 could not be conducted due to natural calamity. In terms of population it holds the same position (twenty first) among States and Union territories as at the previous census. The population of the State rose by 17.53% between 1991–2001. The sex ratio (i.e., the number of females per thousand males) of population was recorded as 970, which has declined from 976 in the previous census. Total literacy of the State rose to 77.13% from 63.94% in 1991. Himachal Pradesh has a Total Fertility Rate of 1.9, one of the lowest in India, and below the TFR, of 2.1, required to maintain a stable population. Population density (per Sq. Km.) [2001] of the State was 109.


Hazard Profile of State

State of Himachal is prone to various hazards both natural and manmade. Main hazards consist of earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, snow storms and avalanches, draughts, dam failures, fires – domestic and wild, accidents – road, rail, air, stampedes, boat capsizing, biological, industrial and hazardous chemicals etc. The hazard which however, poses biggest threat to the State is the earthquake hazard. The State has been shaken by more than 80 times by earthquakes having a magnitude of 4 and above on the Richter Scale as per the recorded history of earthquakes. As per the BIS seismic zoning map five districts of the State, namely Chamba (53.2%) Hamirpur (90.9%), Kangra (98.6%), Kullu (53.1%), Mandi (97.4%) have 53 to 98.6 percent of their area liable to the severest design intensity of MSK IX or more, the remaining area of these districts being liable to the next severe intensity VIII. Two districts, Bilaspur (25.3%) and Una (37.0%) also have substantial area in MSK IX and rest in MSK VIII. The remaining districts also are liable to intensity VIII.

Unfortunately, inspite of the probable maximum seismic intensities being hig , the house types mostly fall under Category A, consisting of walls of clay mud, unburnt bricks or random rubble masonry without any earthquake resisting features. Now all such houses are liable to total collapse if intensity IX or more actually occurs in future and will have severe damage called "destruction" with very large cracks and partial collapses even in Intensity VIII areas. Also, the burnt-brick houses, classified as Category B, as built in Himachal Pradesh do not have the earthquake resisting features, namely good cement mortar seismic bands and roof typing etc. therefore, they will also be liable to severe damage under intensity IX as well as in VIII when ever such an earthquake would occur. This became quite evident even in M 5.7 Dharamshala earthquake of 1986.

Another form of the natural hazards in the state is the frequent occurrences of landslides. The hills and mountains of Himachal Pradesh are liable to suffer landslides during monsoons and also in high intensity earthquakes. The vulnerability of the geologically young and not so stable steep slopes in various Himalayan ranges, has been increasing at a rapid rate in the recent decade due to inappropriate human activity like deforestation, road cutting, terracing and changes in agriculture crops requiring more intense watering etc. Although widespread floods problems do not exist in the state because of topographical nature, continuing attention is necessary to reduce flood hazards in the state, more particularly the flash flood hazard the incidences of which are increasing causing large scale damage. Besides, with the increase of road connectivity and number of vehicles plying on these roads in the State, the number of road accidents and loss of precious human lives is increasing day by day.

The forests of Himachal Pradesh are rich in vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover. Out of total 45,000 species of plants found in the country as many as 3,295 species (7.32%) are reported in the State. More than 95% of species are endemic to Himachal and characteristic of Western Himalayan flora, while about 5% (150 species) are exotic introduced over the last 150 years. Over the years the forest wealth of the State is being destroyed by the incidences of fire attributed to both anthropogenic and other reasons. The destruction of rich flora and fauna of the State due to forest fires will have serious repercussions on the ecological balance of the State. Besides, domestic fire incidents cause loss of property every day.

The State is known as land of Gods. Many famour temples are located in the State such as Sri Naina Devi, Baba Balak Nath, Sri Chintpurni, Ma Jawalaji, Ma Braheswari and Sri Chamunda Nandikeshwari Dham to name a few. Large number of devotees throng these places every year. A human stampede at the temple of Naina Devi occurred on 3 August 2008. 162 people died when they were crushed, trampled, or forced over the side of a ravine by the movement of a large panicking crowd. Possibility of such instances is always there if there is any laxity on the part of the management.

The State has two airports and more than 120 helipads/helicopter landing sites in the State. Punjab governor Surendra Nath and nine members of his family were killed when the government's Super-King aircraft crashed into high mountains in bad weather on July 9, 1994 in Himachal Pradesh. Mr. Nath was then acting Himachal governor also. Himachal has also one ropeway near Parwanoo which witnessed accidents few years back. More ropeways are in the offing in the state. Besides, paragliding activities also take place in Bir Biling every year. Accidents have also taken place during this activity.

Hundreds of people are killed and many more injured in road accidents every year. Few parts of State have rail network also. That makes the state prone to rail accidents too. Pong, Bhakara and Chamera are the three large water reservoirs in the State. These reservoirs besides other river courses are used in the state for transportation purpose also. There is always possibility of boat capsizing during these transport activities. The cases of drowning and washing away in rivers/streams are very common in the State. Cases of snakebite and electrocution are significant during monsoon season.


Current Status of Vulnerability in State

District Wise Disaster Vulnerability of the State:

Considering the proneness of the state towards different kinds of natural hazards, a broad district wise vulnerable status was devised for the state depending upon the vulnerability towards different hazards. Vulnerability matrix was developed based on the qualitative weightage which was given in the scale of 0-5 for different hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, industrial hazards, construction type and density of population. District wise matrix was prepared by evaluating the risk severity. The evaluation also gives weightage to the density of population likely to be affected. The matrix also includes the evaluation of hazards likely to be induced on account of development of projects such as hydel projects, roads industries etc.

In case of earthquake vulnerability, the district Kangra ,Hamirpur and Mandi falls in very high vulnerable category on the basis of the matrix devised. The districts which falls in high earthquake vulnerability are Chamba, Kullu, Kinnaur and part of Kangra and Shimla districts, where as the moderate and low vulnerable districts are Una, Bilaspur ,Sirmour and Solan,Shimla and Lahaul & Spiti districts respectively.

The landslide vulnerability in case of Chamba, Kullu, Kinnaur and part of Kangra and Shimla districts is high followed by Kangra, Mandi, Bilaspur, Shimla,Sirmour and Lahaul & Spiti districts falling in moderate vulnerable category.The areas falling in low vulnerable category are in the districts of Una, Hamirpur and Solan.

The avalanche hazard vulnerability map suggest that the districts of Lahaul & Spiti and Kinnaur are very high vulnerable followed by Chamba, Kullu and part of Kangra and Shimla as moderate vulnerable areas where as the remaining districts fall in the category where avalanche hazards are nil.

The flood hazard vulnerability map indicates that the areas falling in the districts of Chamba, Kullu ,Una and Kinnaur falls in high vulnerable districts where as the Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Shimla , Kangra,Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Solan and Sirmour falls in moderate and low vulnerability areas.

The overall vulnerability of the state on the basis of the matrix clearly suggests that the district Chamba, Kinnaur Kullu and part of Kangra and Shimla falls in very high vulnerable risk. Similarly district Kangra, Mandi, Una ,Shimla and Lahaul and Spiti falls in high vulnerable risk status. The district Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Solan and Sirmour falls in moderate vulnerable risk status. The disaster management strategies and infrastructure required to be evolved by taking the above factors into consideration.


Housing Vulnerability

The census of Houses, 2001 Census of India, gives the following details of houses bases on materials of construction for walls and roofs (BMTPC Vulnerability Atlas):

a) Type of Roof:

Pitched or sloping including Tiles, slate or shingle; Corrugated iron, zinc or other metal sheets; Asbestos cement sheet's thatch, grass, leaves, bamboo etc.

Flat including brick, stone and lime; reinforced brick concrete/reinforced cement concrete.

b) Type of Wall:

Mud, unburnt bricks, stone laid in mud or lime mortar.

Burnt bricks laid in cement, lime or mud mortar.

Cement concrete.

Wood or Ekra walling.

Corrugated iron, zinc or other metal sheets.

Grass, leaves, reeds or bamboo or thatch and others.

c) Type of Flooring:

Various types like mud, stone, concrete etc.

On the basis of building material, the houses have been categorized in four types to assess the vulnerability to earthquake hazard:-

Category A: Mud Wall (all roofs), Unburnt brick or Adobe wall with sloping roof, unburnt brick or Adobe wall with flat roof, stone wall with pitched/sloping roof, stone wall with flat roof.

Category B: Burnt brick wall with sloping roof, burnt brick wall with flat roof.

Category C: Concrete wall with sloping roof, concrete wall with flat roof, wooden wall (all roofs), ekra wall (all roofs)

Category X: Corrugated iron, zinc or other metal sheet walling (all roofs), bamboo, thatch, grass leaves etc. (all roofs).

House types and Risk

The damage risk of various house types is based on their average performance observed during past occurrence of damaging events. In view of numerous variations in the architectural planning, structural, detailing, quality of construction and care taken in maintenance, the performance of each category of houses in a given event could vary substantially from the average observed. For example, under seismic occurrence, the following observations have been made in many cases (BMTPC Vulnerability Atlas).

(a) All Masonry Houses (Categories A and B).

Quality of construction comes out as a major factor in the seismic performance particularly under intensities MSK IX and lower. Good quality constructions perform much better than poor quality constructions in any category. Appropriate maintenance increases durability and maintains original strength.

Number of storeys in the house and storey height are other factors. Higher the storey and more the number of storeys, greater is the observed damage.

Size, location and number of door and window openings in the walls also determine seismic performance, since the openings have weakening effect on the walls. Smaller and fewer openings and located more centrally in the walls are better from seismic performance viewpoint.

Architectural layout, particularly in large buildings, that is, shape of building in plan and elevation, presence of offsets and extended wings also play important role in initiation of damage at certain points and its propagation as well. More symmetrical plans and elevations reduce damage and unsymmetrical ones lead to greater damage.

Where clay/mud mortar is used in wall construction, its wetness at the time of earthquake is very important factor in the seismic performance since the strength of fully saturated mortar can become as low as 15% of its dry strength.

(b) Wooden Houses:

Quality of construction, that is, seasoning of wood and the joinery are important in seismic and cyclone wind performance. Better the quality better the performance.

Wood decays with time due to dry rot, insect and rodent attack etc. therefore, the joints tend to become loose and weak. The state of maintenance of the wooden building will determine its performance during earthquake, high wind, as well as flooding.

(c) Reinforced Concrete Houses:

In reinforced concrete construction, good structural design and detailing and good quality construction only could ensure excellent performance. Carelessness in any of these can lead to poor behaviour both under earthquake and cyclones.

Now the average risk levels to various categories of houses for various hazards and their intensities are defined here below for use in the house vulnerability tables.The damage risk to various house types is defined under various seismic intensities on MSK scale. The following damage risks are defined based on this Intensity Scale:

Very High Damage Risk (VH)

Total Collapse of building.

High Damage Risk (H)

Gaps in walls; parts of buildings may collapse; separate parts of the building lose their cohesion; and inner walls collapse.

Moderate Damage Risk (M):

Large and deep cracks in walls, fall of chimneys on roofs.

Low Damage Risk (L):

Small cracks in walls; fall of fairly large pieces of plaster, pentiles slip off; cracks in chimneys, part may fall down.

Very Low Damage Risk (VL):

Fine cracks in plaster; fall of small pieces of plaster.