Evolution of NDMA
Emergence of an organization is always through an evolutionary process. NDMA has also gone through the same stages. The Government of India (GOI), in recognition of the importance of Disaster Management as a national priority, set up a High-Powered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 and a National Committee after the Gujarat earthquake, for making recommendations on the preparation of Disaster Management plans and suggesting effective mitigation mechanisms. The Tenth Five-Year Plan document also had, for the first time, a detailed chapter on Disaster Management. The Twelfth Finance Commission was also mandated to review the financial arrangements for Disaster Management.
On 23 December 2005, the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act, which envisaged the creation of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by respective Chief Ministers, to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister of India, is the apex body for Disaster Management in India. Setting up of NDMA and the creation of an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
India envisions the development of an ethos of Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness. The Indian government strives to promote a national resolve to mitigate the damage and destruction caused by natural and man-made disasters, through sustained and collective efforts of all Government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations and People’s participation. This is planned to be accomplished by adopting a Technology-Driven, Pro-Active, Multi-Hazard and Multi-Sectoral strategy for building a Safer, Disaster Resilient and Dynamic India.
"To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, pro-active, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation."
Functions and Responsibilities
NDMA, as the apex body, is mandated to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. Towards this, it has the following responsibilities:-
- Lay down policies on disaster management.
- Approve the National Plan.
- Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan.
- Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan.
- Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the Purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects.
- Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plans for disaster management.
- Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation.
- Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government.
- Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situations or disasters as it may consider necessary.
- Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.
The National Policy framework has been prepared after due deliberation and keeping in view the National Vision to build a safe and disaster-resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy for DM. This will be achieved through a culture of prevention, mitigation and preparedness to generate a prompt and efficient response during disasters. The entire process will centre-stage the community and will be provided momentum and sustenance through the collective efforts of all government agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations.
In order to translate this vision into policy and plans, the NDMA has adopted a mission-mode approach involving a number of initiatives with the help of various institutions operating at the national, state and local levels. Central ministries, States and other stakeholders have been involved in the participatory and consultative process of evolving policies and guidelines.
This Policy framework is also in conformity with the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the Rio Declaration, the Millennium Development Goals and the Hyogo Framework 2005-2015. The themes that underpin this policy are:-
- Community-based disaster management, including last mile integration of the policy, plans and execution.
- Capacity development in all related areas.
- Consolidation of past initiatives and best practices.
- Cooperation with agencies at the national, regional and international levels.
- Compliance and coordination to generate a multi-sectoral synergy.
The NDMA Logo reflects the aspirations of this National Vision, of empowering all stakeholders to improve the effectiveness of Disaster Management in India. The Map of India, embossed in gold, in the middle of the logo, circumscribed by the National Tricolor of Saffron, White and Green represents the aspiration to contain the potential threat of natural and man-made disasters through Capacity Development of all stakeholders. The outer circle is a Golden Ring of Partnership of all Stakeholders, whose hand holding is an expression of their solidarity to supplement the efforts of the Government. NDMA in the inner circle in tranquil Blue integrates the entire process by empowering all stakeholders at the local, district, state and national levels. NDMA will catalyze this Community Empowerment through institutional capacity development, strengthened public awareness and community resilience by mainstreaming disaster management in India.